Introspection and Materialism Cover Image

Интроспекция и материализм
Introspection and Materialism

Author(s): Mstislav Kazakov
Subject(s): Psychology, Epistemology, Philosophy of Mind
Published by: Международное философско-космологическое общество
Keywords: introspection; materialism; dualism; epistemic value; epistemic asymmetry; thought experiment; subjective experience; physicalism;

Summary/Abstract: The paper explores the argument from introspection as a counterargument for the validity of reductive materialism and, in other cases, of any type of materialism. The author uses methods and conceptual apparatus of analytic philosophy, as well as the instruments of logical analysis to demonstrate falsity of this argument and impossibility of its usage for the defense of dualism and criticism of materialism. Theory of mind, proposed by David Chalmers, is revisited to demonstrate the epistemic asymmetry arises in case of usage of introspection-argument against materialism. The phenomenon of epistemic asymmetry is explained through the discordance between causal and conceptual relations. The author uses thought experiments as well, to demonstrate uselessness of additional sense, which arises in case of ontological postulation of such concepts as “conscious experience” as something to what introspection propositions refer. The argument from “cultural diversity”, holding the support of introspection-argument, is revisited as well. The results of research resulted into conclusion, to which the ontologization of subjective experience as a proof of causal openness of physical world for the dualism of features and properties (that is, conversion of theoretical ‘inner-scientific’ object into the object of physical reality) is illegitimate and beats completely off the mark. Therefore, the argument from introspection, which is considered the ‘protective belt’ of modern dualistic and non-reductive materialistic approaches (from naturalistic dualism to ‘folk-psychology’, cannot suit as an argument in the discussions in philosophy of mind.

  • Issue Year: 18/2017
  • Issue No: 18
  • Page Range: 138-152
  • Page Count: 15
  • Language: Russian