"Петрушка" Фокіна-Стравінського-Бенуа – три рівні прояву художніх новацій першого десятиліття ХХ століття
"Petrushka" by Stravinsky, Fokine, Benois – three levels of manifestation of artistic innovations of the first decade of the twentieth century

Author(s): Lesya Kosakovska
Subject(s): Theatre, Dance, Performing Arts, Customs / Folklore, Music, Pre-WW I & WW I (1900 -1919)
Published by: Національна академія керівних кадрів культури і мистецтв
Keywords: choreographer; classical dance; Russian ballet; dance image; composer; score; theatrical painting; dance theater;

Summary/Abstract: The article examines Russian choreography of early twentieth century. Defined regularities and results of creativity search of essence of artistic features and significant tools of classical dance in the context of the cultural environment of that period on the example of ballet "Petrushka" by Fokine – Stravinsky – Benois. M. Fokine justly believed that ballet "Petrushka" can be described as a dramatic piece of music of Stravinsky, which occupies an exceptional position among new music. Music for "Petrushka" was the first herald of a "new life". And Stravinsky didn’t stop create, because he started think differently. He gave up on admiring people’s poetic fantasy, romance, poetic contemplation and imitation. Life, struggle, love, movement, games and dances become active force. Intensity and softness of expression perform forward to change mental architectonics. The revolution in Stravinsky’s thinking manifested primarily in the fact that he didn’t feet the form as completely self-sufficient scheme which pressure on the mind. On the contrary, music thought creates form. In "Petrushka" Stravinsky gave out his strong creative outlook and cut forever his ability to return to make music for recipes to taste. The figure of scores was changed to unrecognized. Lines revived and flourished. Instead of cold vertical columns, which distributed pattern of figuration – free rhythmic play of various motives and complex of sounds. "Petrushka" can be also named, as one of the best creations of the artist Alexander Benois. About "Petrushka" is possible to speak as about Fokine’s setting, which is one of the most complete embodiments of his reforms in ballet. Choreographer argued that "Petrushka" – is one of his most successful achievements. One of the main idea of M. Fokine was not to make combinations of provided and constant dance movements, but create a new form in each case which would fit the plot. That explains the search of unique choreography for the image displayed in plastic score of "Petrushka". Rejecting the conventional gesture, Fokine combined plastic wealth of the world in dance, enlivening ballet performance by means of painting, folklore, using musical score to create vivid imagery characteristics of different types of dance, including classical. Similar achievements are marked by theatrical painting of artists, who have worked with M. Fokine, in particular, A. Benois. Earlier were made multiply attempts to create new choreography and put on performance new stage outfits. Despite the fact that these productions had talented finds, Fokine and Benois cooperation urged in its originality and showed organic unity of all components of ballet. Creating best traditions of Russian ballet, M. Fokine opened a new are in choreography theatre. Focusing on the creative search of his time, studying literature, art, music and theater, Fokine abandoned from classical dance as a single and universal way of solving in ballets. He started to use different, new for each theme, forms of expression, which corresponded to the place of action, national characteristics, genre and character of conception, and in particular, used elements of national dances. In this approach, classical dance found a new coloration depending on which era, country style, to reality or fiction was turned choreographer. Emotionality and distinctiveness of stage action is the prerequisite, which made ballet "Petrushka" accessible to the general audience. In turn, this allowed the authors to expand the ideological and thematic horizons of ballet, democratize the characters, respond to the themes of nowadays. As it is known, Stravinsky – Fokine ballets weren’t put on pre-Revolutionary Russian stage. But they were saved through the efforts of enthusiasts in the Grand Opera House and, thus, we can see the true staging made by Fokine in today’s recording. Ballet "Petrushka" is great example which made general conclusions about the organic unity of choreography Michael Fokine, music of Igor Stravinsky and theatrical painting of Alexander Benois as components of innovative ballet.

  • Issue Year: 2013
  • Issue No: 2
  • Page Range: 108-114
  • Page Count: 7
  • Language: Ukrainian