Author(s): Stela Doncheva
Subject(s): History, Cultural history, History of ideas, Middle Ages, Theology and Religion, 6th to 12th Centuries
Published by: Шуменски университет „Епископ Константин Преславски“
Keywords: Christian architecture; Early Middle Ages

Summary/Abstract: The proportions are the basis of each harmonic established architectural composition realized with a specific purpose and subject to a certain idea. To create a plan, is to define the concept. In early Christian architecture the idea is to create space to materialize the invisible divine atmosphere to Christian converts. As the architecture operates and mathematics standards, but is also the plastic figurativeness forms and ideas - most fully able to meet the requirements and demands of the new spiritual atmosphere over time after the official recognition of Christianity in the IVth century. In the present work are made metric analyzes of twenty buildings from the Early Middle Ages. The aim is to cover almost all the major centers, where they erected such monuments. Comparative performance of planning schemes and geometric dimensioning on them show similarities and some differences that are due more to the practical application of the elements of the plan on the ground than in the basic principles of design. Emphasis is placed on the basilica buildings, which are the most numerous facilities, built after the adoption of Christianity as the official religion of the empire. From a brief overview on the dimensioning principles in the construction of some characteristic monuments of the early Middle Ages in the major areas of the Byzantine Empire, it is clear that the main stages in the architectural development during this period in all regions are the same, although expressed in different forms. Raised in Bulgaria monuments of this time is no exception. The system of aspect ratio which is found in the early Christian structures based on squares and its "derivatives" and is called "system of diagonals". One of these derivatives is the proportion of the golden section, which underlies the design and construction of the temples of this period. Practically all breaks down into separate building units on the basis of a single module. First establish basic arithmetic dependencies and their connection with geometric constructions as a starting value is a number. Through trigonometric functions or proportional multiplier is calculated another dimension (length or height), which always coincides with the actual values measured by the plan of the building. For all theorists who are builders and practitioners starting position is construction on the plane of the main schemes as listed in each other squares. The sides of these squares and their diagonals serve as modules under construction and orthogonal elements are removed from the plan. The height of the elements to express whole multiples of the module. The irrational values dominate in determining the width of the resulting structure which is obtained, the height of which is derived from the plan. The breakdown of the plan is implemented as a graphical and arithmetic system. For geometric manner a rope with a length equal to the whole, and the arithmetic means based on the pre-set amount, by means of which is determined a numerical width of the future structure. Proportional ratios derived from the linear expression of compositional elements (length or height), i.e. side of the rectangle in which it is an element of the composition. Lean and irrational system is perceived in early Christian temple construction. There symbolic meaning is derived from the Christian philosophy and the character of liturgical practice.

  • Issue Year: 2018
  • Issue No: 18
  • Page Range: 321-341
  • Page Count: 21
  • Language: Bulgarian