Cultural and social diversity in Slovakia iv. social change and adaptation
Cultural and social diversity in Slovakia iv. social change and adaptation
Contributor(s): Alexandra Bitušíková (Editor), Daniel Luther (Editor)
Subject(s): Gender Studies, Local History / Microhistory, Social history, Culture and social structure , Health and medicine and law, Rural and urban sociology, Sociology of Culture, Transformation Period (1990 - 2010), Present Times (2010 - today), History of Communism, Migration Studies, Ethnic Minorities Studies, Sociology of Politics, Globalization
Published by: Ústav etnológie a sociálnej antropológie Slovenskej akadémie vied
Keywords: Cultural and social diversity; Slovakia; Social change; Postsocialism; Working life; Sustainable lifestyles; Vietnamese migrants; Indian Medicine in Slovakia; Holocaust in Slovakia;
Summary/Abstract: The publication hereby presented to the public focuses on the processes of adaptation of individuals and groups of urban inhabitants in the period of social changes after 1989. From the outside, the collapse of Communism in Czechoslovakia was a simple act of formal resignation by which the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia admitted its inability to further lead this country. The subsequent changes, however, affected almost all aspects of everyday life. The developments in this unstable and heterogeneous political situation was reflected in social relationships; the restructuring of ownership had positive effects on some people, and negative ones on others; the changes in the labour market and employment weakened the life securities, and changed the work habits inherited from the time of socialism. The period after 1989 was characterised by the arrival of foreign companies and their managers, and proven ways of advertising and goods from all over the world, changing the culture of work, clothing, housing, catering, etc. The mass media crossed the borders of the “socialist camp” and brought new ideas, ideals, cultural models or ways of behaviour. The “global world” penetrated lives of the citizens in many ways. The free market destroyed the long-preserved cultural models and became the determining criterion of values for many. The norm our society places in front of its members is the norm of ability and willingness to play the role of a consumer (Bauman 1999: 98). Commercialisation and globalisation are the accompanying phenomena of these processes.
- E-ISBN-13: 978-80-88997-52-8
- Page Count: 110
- Publication Year: 2013
- Language: English
TRANSFORMATION OF MICRO-AND MACRO-WORLDS AT THE TIME OF POSTSOCIALISM
(TRANSFORMATION OF MICRO-AND MACRO-WORLDS AT THE TIME OF POSTSOCIALISM)
- Author(s):Soňa Lutherová G.
- Subject(s):Social history, Cultural Anthropology / Ethnology, Rural and urban sociology, Transformation Period (1990 - 2010), Present Times (2010 - today), Sociology of Politics, Globalization
- Page Range:8-19
- No. of Pages:12
- Keywords:Postsocialism; social change; Postsocialist transformation; Urban and rural environments;
- Summary/Abstract:The recent period of over twenty years since the Velvet Revolution has seen, in the Central-European and specifically in the Slovak context, a rapid change of living conditions - socio-cultural, economic and material ones. This transformation had its specific forms not only when comparing the different postsocialist countries, but also across regions and social segments (Podoba 2007: 6). Social changes have occurred from the micro-level up to the macro-level. People in the role of actors and bearers of transformations, or vice versa, of their passive observers “driven” by external circumstances were more or less able to adapt themselves and their acts and strategies to the new living conditions. This contribution deals with the fundamental features of the social change defined by the period of postsocialism in the context of changes in the urban environment in Slovakia. The key issue of this chapter is the question in what way was the transformation of society reflected in the everyday lives of individuals.
CHANGES IN THE WORKING LIFE: THE STORY OF A COMPANY AND ITS EMPLOYEES
(CHANGES IN THE WORKING LIFE: THE STORY OF A COMPANY AND ITS EMPLOYEES)
- Author(s):Katarína Koštialová
- Subject(s):Economic history, Social history, Transformation Period (1990 - 2010), Present Times (2010 - today), Human Resources in Economy, Socio-Economic Research
- Page Range:20-30
- No. of Pages:11
- Keywords:Working life; Organisation; Employees; transformation and adaptation; socio-economic research;
- Summary/Abstract:The working life of most people usually takes place in bounds of an institution, a company or an organisation. Even starting working, one already has to adapt to the new team, new skills, company culture or communicational and inter-personal relations. He/she is put in a certain hierarchical structure (professional and functional), works with specific levels of technology in different work and cultural environment. One adopts new goals, values and norms of the group and the institution (Rymeš 1998). For most people work is not only important in order to maintain an income, but also demonstrates other important aspects that are appealing but not always healthy. Examples such as socialising, cultural or identifying function, self-realisation or prestige (Koštialová 2009: 34). Except age, education, etc., a career path is also influenced by political, economic, technological, social and cultural evolution of society that an individual has to adapt to during his/her professional life.
ON THE WAY TO SUSTAINABLE LIFESTYLES: CHANGES IN FOOD PRACTICES IN SLOVAKIA
(ON THE WAY TO SUSTAINABLE LIFESTYLES: CHANGES IN FOOD PRACTICES IN SLOVAKIA)
- Author(s):Alexandra Bitušíková
- Subject(s):Agriculture, Sociology of Culture, Financial Markets, Globalization
- Page Range:31-43
- No. of Pages:13
- Keywords:Sustainable lifestyles; Food practices in Slovakia; Globalisation; Food activism;
- Summary/Abstract:The paper is an introduction to the study of local activism focused on practices leading to sustainable lifestyles, alternative food systems, food networks and foodways in Slovakia (on the example of the city and region of Banská Bystrica in Central Slovakia). New food and eating practices reflect the adaptation to globalisation and the trends associated with it. Import and consumption of foods from global food chains and the use of global pattern in eating (e.g .fast food) lead to seeking alternative and more sustainable forms of obtaining food. Globalisation therefore not only brought new products, but also new models of alternative ways of life. In the last two decades, the Slovak society underwent a rapid transformation from socialist economy to market economy and studying the adaptation of the people to the changes in political-economic institutions and socio-cultural forms, norms, values and customs is interesting yet complicated regarding the dynamics and the instability of the development.
ADAPTATION OF VIETNAMESE MIGRANTS TO SOCIAL CHANGES
(ADAPTATION OF VIETNAMESE MIGRANTS TO SOCIAL CHANGES)
- Author(s):Miroslava Hlinčíková
- Subject(s):Business Economy / Management, Transformation Period (1990 - 2010), Present Times (2010 - today), Migration Studies, Ethnic Minorities Studies, Socio-Economic Research, Identity of Collectives
- Page Range:44-53
- No. of Pages:10
- Keywords:Vietnamese migrants; Slovakia; Social changes; Postsocialist transformation;
- Summary/Abstract:Bratislava, one of the less globally interconnected cities before 1989, is being gradually transformed into a more cosmopolitan European city as a result of developing capitalism and Slovakia joining the European Union. The choice of restaurants and the offer of various foodstuffs and goods in Bratislava are much wider today than in the past. People can visit many “ethnic” restaurants, and we can also observe an increasing number and range of shops with “exotic” food from Asia and the Middle East. It is not a problem anymore to buy rice noodles, sushi, or spices from all over the world. Kebab fast-food, sushi bars, Asian snack-bars, and Chinese restaurants became a visible part of the public space. The transformation after 1989 and the subsequent social change affected to a various degree all layers of the population which adapted to the new living conditions. In this context, the change also affected migration between Vietnam and Czechoslovakia which was previously developing under the guise of friendly socialist countries. Even before 1989, Vietnamese citizens pertained to the group of migrants who could enter the territory of the closed socialist Czechoslovakia and their mobility was supported by both countries. The way the fall of socialism affected the lives and strategies of migrants living in Czechoslovakia in the breakthrough period are described in their individual stories that I sought to present in this study.
ACCULTURATION OF TRADITIONAL INDIAN MEDICINE IN SLOVAKIA
(ACCULTURATION OF TRADITIONAL INDIAN MEDICINE IN SLOVAKIA)
- Author(s):Ivan Souček
- Subject(s):Cultural history, Indian Philosophy, Cultural Anthropology / Ethnology, Health and medicine and law, Ethnic Minorities Studies
- Page Range:54-63
- No. of Pages:10
- Keywords:Traditional Indian medicine; Slovakia; Ayurveda; Yoga; Karma;
- Summary/Abstract:Though there are many publications on traditional Indian medicine in the current book market, many issues concerning the existence of this form of medicine still remain unanswered. Focus is therefore paid to the processes of penetration and adaptation of Ayurvedic (Ayurveda — Ayurvedic) medical science within the urban environment in Slovakia, collectively called acculturation. The structure of this contribution corresponds, in my opinion, to the complexity of this topic. The introduction presents basic information on complementary and alternative medicine; it is followed by a brief explanation of the concepts of global and modern Ayurveda, and by a transcript and interpretation notes on the field research that aimed to capture the current transformation of this phenomenon, examined in our environment.
ACCEPTATION OF LGBTI MOVEMENTS IN THE CURRENT SOCIO-POLITICAL CONTEXT
(ACCEPTATION OF LGBTI MOVEMENTS IN THE CURRENT SOCIO-POLITICAL CONTEXT)
- Author(s):Vendula Wiesnerová
- Subject(s):Gender Studies, Media studies, Human Rights and Humanitarian Law, Politics and society, Sociology of Politics
- Page Range:64-72
- No. of Pages:9
- Keywords:LGBT movements; Socio-political context; social phenomena; Slovakia;
- Summary/Abstract:With the formation of a democratic society in Slovakia, some new social phenomena started to raise attention, including new models of co-existence, as well as nonheterosexual partnerships and relationships in general. This period is characterised by the emergence of new civil topics, successfully developed at a European scale, which have, however, provoked a whole range of reactions within the society, among the representatives of state institutions, and within the conservative circles of the Catholic Church. The civil society development after 1989 resulted in the creation of an activist network of organisations and associations which joined the process of raising public awareness and formulating requirements with the aim to achieve better acceptance of LGBTI people through the modification of civil rights. This prolonged process of adaptation of the society to the acceptance of new forms of gender expressions, coexistence, partnership and family, which are mainly disseminated by people identifying themselves with any of the categories referred to by the abbreviation LGBTI movement, has recently brought concrete results. The recent development in Slovakia is influenced, inter alia, by increased sensitiveness to human rights topics in the European society, and by the overall situation in the world which has been characterised in the past years by important changes concerning the equal status of non-heterosexual relationships (France, USA), and the adoption of legislation on gender identity (Argentina, Australia). As the recent surveys of FOCUS Agency conducted for Iniciatíva Inakosť (Otherness Initiative) suggest, this situation has an impact on the creation of a positive environment also within the Slovak society (Iniciatíva Inakosť 2012). Activists consider the establishment of the Committee for the Rights of Lesbians, Gays, Bisexual, Transgender and Intersexual People (LGBTI Committee) at the Government Council of the Slovak Republic for Human Rights, Ethnic Minorities and Gender Equality (hereinafter referred to as “Government Council”) in 2012 as an important move forward in the development of these issues in Slovakia. The creation of this Committee, however, cannot be viewed as a clear influence of bigger social tolerance and of a more liberal attitude to these issues.
THE HOLOCAUST IN SLOVAKIA: PERSPECTIVE OF OBSERVERS. COPING WITH THE PAST?
(THE HOLOCAUST IN SLOVAKIA: PERSPECTIVE OF OBSERVERS. COPING WITH THE PAST?)
- Author(s):Monika Vrzgulová
- Subject(s):Military history, Cultural Anthropology / Ethnology, Studies in violence and power, WW II and following years (1940 - 1949), History of the Holocaust, History of Antisemitism, Ethnic Minorities Studies, Peace and Conflict Studies
- Page Range:73-82
- No. of Pages:10
- Keywords:Holocaust; Slovakia; World War II; Ethnological research;
- Summary/Abstract:The social and political changes in Slovakia after 1989 opened many new challenges, tasks, and issues. One of the consequences of these changes was the fact that the public and expert discourse started to raise topics on the modern history of Slovakia - before taboo, overlooked, or ideologically interpreted by the Communist regime. A request and interest suddenly emerged to explore our own history without the dictate of ideology, independently and openly. The history topics which were previously taboo referred to the period of the wartime Slovak state (1939-1945) and its totalitarian regime, and the forms of the Holocaust in Slovakia. Historians and social scientists started to explore these topics from the perspective of their science disciplines. In order to contribute to a critical re-assessment of the ideologically burdened images of the past and to the overcoming of historic stereotypes surviving in our societies, the oral history method is primarily used in my ethnological research. It represents an appropriate tool for the capturing of subjective testimonies of experienced events at a certain historic period. Thanks to this method, it is possible to obtain an interpretation of historic events from the perspective of individuals who are part of the society. My research is based on the assumption that the affiliation of a witness to a certain social group or groups determines his/her testimony, and the memory processes depend not only on external stimuli, but also on the particular social context (Halbwachs 1980; Assman 1992; Ferencová - Nosková 2009: 21-31).
ADAPTATION OF FAMILIES FORCIBLY DISPLACED UNDER THE ACTION B: THE PAST AND THE PRESENT
(ADAPTATION OF FAMILIES FORCIBLY DISPLACED UNDER THE ACTION B: THE PAST AND THE PRESENT)
- Author(s):Jolana Darulová
- Subject(s):Local History / Microhistory, Social history, Culture and social structure , Family and social welfare, Post-War period (1950 - 1989)
- Page Range:83-92
- No. of Pages:10
- Keywords:Action B; Communist idea; changing the social structure of the society; 1952-1953; Banská Štiavnica; Banská Bystrica; Families;
- Summary/Abstract:The central topic of the paper is Action B which was aimed to implement the Communist idea of changing the social structure of the society and adapting it to the needs of the new regime. Action B was supposed to definitely cleanse towns from enemies, and help to solve the housing problem. It was carried out by means of violent displacement of whole groups of inhabitants from both big and smaller Czech and Slovak towns. Action B was carried out from 1952 to 1953, and formed part of controlled activities in the period of the dictatorship of the proletariat when the foundations of the Communist regime were laid down (1948-1953). “The new regime was bom with the denial, disruption, and liquidation of the principles on which it was built... the destruction of the society entered all fields of social life” (Kaplan 1991: 146). At the same time, it was a period which forced individuals to adapt to the new reality and seek their place in it. According to Babal (2009: 22), “the displacements of people in the post-war period was nothing uncommon in the territory of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (CSR), and were executed back to 1938 (displacement of citizens of Czech nationality shortly after the birth of the Slovak State, or Slovak Republic; later displacement of the Jewish population, and of Germans and Hungarians after the re-birth of the CSR). After the regime change in February 1948, the displacement of persons smoothly followed the previous development, and targeted other groups of inhabitants. We could say that, in a certain way, the population ‘got used’ to displacements executed in the period 1938-1948. It affected farmers, churches (especially the Catholic Church), inhabitants of bordering areas, and others - individuals and their families.”
- Author(s):Daniel Luther
- Subject(s):Social history, Cultural Anthropology / Ethnology, Culture and social structure , Transformation Period (1990 - 2010), Present Times (2010 - today)
- Page Range:93-97
- No. of Pages:5
- Keywords:Summary; Social changes; adaptation; Postsocialist transformation;
- Summary/Abstract:This publication is about the adaptation to social changes in Slovakia after the collapse of the Communist regime in 1989 along with the democratisation of society and introduction of open market economy. This period is known as postsocialism, which means not only a new stage in the development of the society, but also continuity with the previous stage (both social and cultural one).
- Author(s):Not Specified Author
- Page Range:98-108
- No. of Pages:11